This page offers a growing list of resources that we have found useful and interesting in our research.  We are currently grappling with words like error, glitch, ambiguity, mistake, malfunction, noise, failure, bug….

Come back in a few weeks to see what else we have added, or please email Sita Popat at with suggestions to add to the list.


Clearing up Ambiguity  (2015) “So what is it about ambiguity that it has to be praised to high heaven by all and sundry?” Tim Parks explores the pros and cons of the “wonderfully ambiguous” in literature.

The Glitch Moment(um) (2012) Rosa Menkman discusses glitch aesthetics and media theory, drawing upon a range of examples including some of her own artworks. The book opens with her Glitch Manifesto. Rosa Menkman’s blogspot is also a useful resource.

Jon Satrom is an artist working with glitches, blips, errors, and noise.  You can also follow Jon Satrom’s Twitter feed.

This glitch video will interest anyone who has played the Portal game.  This shows what happens if your avatar is crushed between two portals.

Glitch is now recognised as a Shutterstock photo category.  Search using the term ‘glitch’ to find images.


M/C Journal: A Journal of Media and Culture produced a special issue on “Error” in 2007, edited by Mark Nunes.  The issue contained a number of interesting articles, including:

  • Barker, Tim. Error, the Unforeseen, and the Emergent: The Error and Interactive Media Art.  “The condition that marks the post-digital age may be the condition for error.”
  • Mako Hill, Benjamin. Revealing Error. …”errors represent a point where invisible technology is already visible to users. As such, these errors, and countless others like them, can be treated as the tip of an iceberg. They represent an important opportunity for humanists and activists to further expose technologies and the beginning of a process that aims to reveal much more.”

Gaver, William W., Jacob Beaver & Steve Benford. 2003. “Ambiguity as a Resource for Design”. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI’03 pp.233-240.

Nunes, Mark (ed). 2011. Error: Glitch, Noise, and Jam in New Media Cultures. Bloomsbury: London & New York.

Roberts, John. 2011. The Necessity of Errors. Verso: London & New York.
The introduction and first chapter locate the concept of error in a philosophical lineage that includes Descartes, Foucault, Hegel and Marx. A series of themed chapters follow, exploring the productive roles of error in the sciences, psychoanalysis, history and politics, and the arts.